Bradon S Review

 Bradon T Review Dissertation

Bradon's В review В

Tuesday, В September В 23, В 2014

1 .

six: 14 В PM

Explain the distinction among climate & weather. Employing this concept, describe why an individual hurricane or perhaps summer heat wave is definitely not in of on its own proof of climatic change?

a.

Climateis: В a В measure В of В the В average В pattern В of В variation В in В temperature, В

moisture, В atmospheric В pressure, В wind, В precipitation, В atmospheric В particle В depend В and В other В meteorological В variables В in В a В given В region В over В long В periods В of В time.

b.

Climate: the В state В of В the В atmosphere В at В a В place В and В time В as В regards В heat, В dryness, В sunshine, В wind, В rain, В etc

c. Individual В weather В changes В does В not В mean В that В it В was В affected В by В the В global В climate В change. В When В multiple В climate В improvements В around В areas В alterations В and В causes В dominos В effect.

2 .

Illustrate several different pathways that a package of energy usually takes during the time in the world and how each one would impact the average area temperature. You should be able to contain interactions based on a surfaces, green house and non-greenhouse gases, clouds, and the position of water, and be able to recognize the mode of energy copy at each stage.

• Newly arriving  solar  energy-­‐absorbed  by  land  and  ocean  51%,  reflected  by  atmosphere  6%,  reflected  by  clouds  20%,  reflected  from  earth's  surface  4%,  absorbed  by  atmosphere  1. 6%,  absorbed  by  clouds  3%,  conduction  and  rising  air  7%

• (RED)  Carried  to  clouds  and  atmosphere  by  latest  heat  in  water  vapor  23%,  radiation  absorbed  by  atmosphere  15%,  radiated  directly  to  space  from  earth6%,  radiated  to  space  from  clouds  and  atmosphere  64%.  SEE  ARROW  POSITION  ON  PPOINT

• Considering  the  Earth  from  space  we  can  assume  thermodynamic  equilibrium

• In  steady  state:  Energy  IN=  Energy  Out.  Climate  is  hanging  in  the  balance • Electromagnetic  radiation

• Radiation В is В the В transfer В of В energy В by В rapid В oscillations В of В electromagnetic В

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

3.

ARROW В POSITION В ON В PPOINT

Taking into consideration В the В Earth В from В space В we В can В assume В thermodynamic В sense of balance

At В steady В state: В Energy В IN= В Energy В Out. В Climate В is В hanging В in В the В balance Electromagnetic В radiation

The radiation В is В the В transfer В of В energy В by В rapid В oscillations В of В electromagnetic В fields

The  most  important  general  characteristic  is  its  wavelength Unless  constrained,  travels  at  the  speed  of  light.  X-­‐rays  have  higher  wavelengths-­‐ more  energy  per  meter

RADIATION

What В emits В radiation? В All В objects В with В T> 0 В degrees В Kelvin В radiate В some В energy

Light В laws: В Warmer В objects В emit В more В intensely В than В cold В objects Warmer В objects В emit В a В higher В proportion В of В their В energy В at В short В wavelengths В than В cold В objects

Sun light В is В made В of В: В visible В light В ( 44%) В and В infrared В radiation В ( 48%) В and В ultraviolet (uv) В ( В 7%) В В

SUN-­‐emits  shortwave,  EARTH-­‐ produces  long  wave FATE  OF  ENERGY  FROM  THE  SUN

Sun's В energy В is В either В scattered В or В absorbed

Just В certain В gases В absorb В certain В wavelengths

Scattering В or В absorption В happens В where В energy В meets В particles В in В the В atmosphere, В earth's В surface

How does albedo affect the Earth's radiative energy stability?

Albedo-­‐ it  changes  the  amount  of  radiation  that  is  reflected  to  the  earth-­‐ modify  in  amount  of absorbtion

• the  fraction  of  light  reflected  an  object  or  a  surface  ( 0-­‐1  or  %) -­‐light  and  white  objects  have  high  albedos

-­‐dark/black  albedos  have  low  albedos

• Earth's  albedos  is  30%  so  earth  absorbs  70  %  of  the  sunlight  strikes  it 4.

Precisely what are the three periods of orbital variability explained by Milankovitch theory? How exactly does each affect Earth's local climate?

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Climate В influence

Eccentricity В modulates...

Popular