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Geographies of Interdependence

Cognition, belief, and motor behavior will be closely related throughout existence

Cognition and perception, focus and memory space, are increase in numbers interrelated (Awh & Jonides, 2001; Awh, Vogel & Oh, 06\; Bleckley, Durso, Crutchfield, Engle & Khanna, 2003; sobre Fockert, Rees, Frith & Lavie, 2001; Pratt & Hommel, 2003). Perception and action are usually intimately interrelated (Bertenthal & Clifton, 1998; Costall, Bremner & Slater, 2004; Funk, Brugger & Wilkening, june 2006; Ganis, Keenan, Kosslyn & Pascual-Leone, 2150; Hommel, june 2006; Humphreys, Riddoch, Forti & Ackroyd, 2004; Sharma, Pomeroy & Baron, 2006). Mirror neurons give a striking example of integration of perception and action on the cellular level. They fire when you see someone else performing a particular goal-directed action or when you your self execute that same goal-directed motor action (Iacoboni, june 2006; Meltzoff & Decety, the year 2003; Rizzolatti & Craighero, 2004). Cognitive creation and motor development are usually intimately interrelated, displaying designated parallels and multiple points of connection (Diamond, 2000; Silencio, Wise & Vaadia, 2005; Rosenbaum, Carlson & Gilmore, 2001). For example , a trouble in possibly motor or perhaps cognitive development is more typically associated with a perturbation in the other than not really (Denckla & Rudel, 1978; Gillberg, 2003; Leary & Hill, mil novecentos e noventa e seis; Pitcher, Piek & Hay, 2003). We all learn what is relevant to get our activities and we master best when we must definitely use what we should learn (Gibson, 1986; Olson, 1964).

Henry’s machine-generated effects

In 2001 Henry’s machine-generated function was mentioned in terms of the utilization made, seeing that earliest times, of a selection of tools for producing similar abstract, visual effects. (O’Hanrahan 2001) Once Holly himself acquired beheld the visual effects made by his initial machine, then he strove to find possible precursors such as the organic forms explained in normal form math concepts. (D’Arcy-Thompson 1917; Cook 1914). Henry as well compared his machine-generated results to those developed using earlier scientific and mathematical instruments such as: Suardi’s Geometric Coop of 1750 (Adams 1813), Pendulum Harmonographs (Goold et al., 1909) and the Geometric Lathe since used in elaborate and bank-note engraving. (Holtzapffel 1973 )

His inclusion in late 1960s in Cybernetic Serendipity enabled him to help contrast his machine-generated results with related though significantly less complex and varied types produced using a variety of tools. These included effects displayed on a visual display screen using a cathode-ray oscilloscope (Ben Farreneheit. Laposky in Cybernetic Serendipity 1968) and people produced using a mechanical plotter linked to whether digital (Lloyd Sumner in Cybernetic Serendipity 1968) or perhaps analogue pc (Maughan T. Mason in Cybernetic Serendipity 1968). However Henry’s attracting machines, contrary to other accuracy mark-making tools like the lathe and mechanised plotter, relied heavily upon the element of chance both in their structure and function. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Henry’s artistic career

It absolutely was thanks to musician L. H. Lowry, employed in collaboration with the then movie director of Salford Art Gallery, A. Frape, that Henry’s artistic career was launched in 1961 if he won a nearby competition by Salford Art gallery, entitled Birmingham Opportunity. The prize pertaining to winning this kind of competition was a one-man display show in London at the Reid Gallery. Lowry knew how crucial this sort of a Birmingham show could be in delivering an musician to public attention. Among the competition judges, Lowry went to Henry’s residence in Burford Drive, Manchester, to view his range of imaginative work. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

It had been at this London show of 62, entitled Ideographs, that Henry’s machine-generated results were showed for the first time, along with photographs based upon Henry’s photo-chemical techniques which experienced originally won him your competition prize. (O’Hanrahan 2005) It absolutely was this first exhibition of machine-produced effects which led to Henry wonderful first drawing machine being included in the very first programme in the BBC’sNorth in Sixseries and his becoming approached by the American mag Life. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Henry and his initially drawing equipment were to be highlighted in this publication, but the content was abandoned following the murder of US Chief executive John Farrenheit. Kennedy. The generally positive response his photographs received reflects the zeitgeist of scientific optimism from the 1960s. (O’Hanrahan 2005) The Guardian of 17/9/62 explained the images made by this 1st machine to be quite out of this world and almost impossible to produce by human being hands.

Henry’s machine-generated results went on being exhibited by various spots during the 60s, the most main being Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) held on the Institute of Contemporary Arts (I. C. A) in London. This represented one of the most significant fine art and technology exhibitions of the decade. (Goodman 1987) With this exhibition not only the effects but also the drawing machine itself was included as an interactive display. Cybernetic Serendipity then continued to head to the United States, exactly where exhibition locations included the Corcoran Gallery in Buenos aires and San Francisco’s Structure of Excellent Arts. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

This kind of second equipment returned from the tour of the United States in 1972 in a complete state of downfall. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Such technical failures were not unusual in electric and motor-driven display items. (Rosenburg 1972) More recently, frequent physical and/or electronic computer complete breakdowns contributed to the decision to close Artworks, (The Lowry, Salford Quays, Manchester, U. K) in March the year 2003 after only three years in operation as a long term, technology-based, interactive exhibition. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

How the drawing machines operated

Henry’s attracting machines were quite as opposed to the conventional pcs of the 1960s since they cannot be preprogrammed nor retail store information. (O’Hanrahan 2005) His machines relied instead, because did the ones from artist Blue jean Tinguely, after a mechanics of chance. (Pontus Hulten in Peiry 1997, l. 237) In other words, they relied upon the chance relationship in the set up of each machine’s mechanical parts, the smallest alteration to which, (for example, a loose screw), could dramatically impinge on the final result. In the words and phrases of Henry, he let each equipment do its thing in accordance with itssui generismechanised features, with often surprising and capricious results. The imprecise way Henry’s devices were both constructed and operated ascertained that their particular effects cannot be mass-produced and would be infinitely various. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Such imprecise tools as Henry’s equipment, have been evaluated by a lot of to enhance artistic creativity as opposed to modern pc imaging computer software which leaves no opportunity for imaginative intuition. (Reffin-Smith 1997) Neither could Henry’s machines have already been accused of preventing the artist from exercising artistic choice. These were truly active, like modern computer graphical manipulation software program. With a Henry drawing equipment, the artist had basic overall control and was free to physical exercise personal and artistic pure intuition at any given moment of his picking during the sketching production procedure. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Both these portions of chance and interaction had been in contrast to other computer artists or graphic artists of the period, for whom the first stage in producing a digital computer image was to get pregnant the end product. The next stage was one where, mathematical formulae or geometric design manipulations (were) found to represent the desired lines. These were then simply programmed into a computer language, punched upon cards, and read in to the computer. (Sumner 1968 g. 11)

Artwork and technology

Several would believe scientific and technological improvements have always inspired art when it comes to its inspiration, tools and visual effects. In the words of Douglas Davis: Art can easily no more reject either technology or scientific research than it may the world itself. (Davis 1973, introduction) In his writings Holly himself frequently expressed his lifelong excitement for fruitful collaborations among art and technology. (Henry: 1962, 1964, 1969, 1972)

During the Initial Machine Age, prior to Community War Two, enthusiasm intended for technological improvements was stated by the Machine Aesthetic which usually heralded the current Movement. (Banham 1960) Linked art motions of this period which distributed aspects of the device Aesthetic included: Purism in France, Futurism in Italia (both of which celebrated the glories of recent machines and the excitement of speed), Suprematism, Productivism in Russia, Constructivism, Precisionism in North America and kinetic statue. (Meecham and Sheldon 2000)

By the 1960s, in the Second Machine Era, technology supplied not only the inspiration intended for art production but above all its equipment (Popper 1993), as mirrored by the Skill and Technology movement in the us. Adherents for this movement employed only the extremely latest available computer equipment. In this early phase of computer artwork, programmers became artists and artists started to be programmers to perceive the computer’s creative possibilities (Darley, 1990). Since Holly worked in comparative imaginative and clinical isolation, this individual did not get access to the latest technological innovations, in contrast to all those working, for instance , at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

By the 1970s, the earlier enthusiasm intended for technology experienced in the 60s gave approach to the post-modern loss of trust in technology as its harmful effects, at war and on the environment, started to be more noticeable. (Lucie-Smith 1980) Goodman (1987) suggests that it truly is since 1978 that the second technology of pc artists can be recognised; a generation which will no longer should be electronically knowledgeable or successful because the software does it for them. (Goodman 1987, p. 47) This is in contrast to Henry who had to buy the necessary understanding and skills to manipulate and modify the constituents of the bombsight computers to construct the drawing devices. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

During the 1980s, the application in computers in the microchip (developed by 1972) increased the affordability of any home computer and led to the introduction of interactive pc graphics programs like Sketchpad and different Paintbox systems. (Darley 1991) During this period, laptop art provided way nearly completely to computer design as the computer’s the image capabilities started to be exploited both industrially and commercially and moved into entertainment related spheres, e. g.: Pixar, Lucas Films. (Goodman 1987) The computer once again became, for some, a great undisputed artsy tool in its own right. (Goodman 1987)

This reconditioned enthusiasm inside the computer’s creative possibilities continues to be further reflected by the beginning towards the end of the 20th century of numerous forms of cyber, virtual, or digital art, examples of such as algorithmic art and fractal art. By twenty-first century, digitally made and/or manipulated images were exhibited in galleries since veritable art works in their own right (O’Hanrahan 2005).

Emotions affect cognition, perception, mind function, and physical wellness

Affect influences what we believe, how obviously we think, whatever we perceive and remember, and how we all interpret whatever we perceive (Arnsten, 1998; Bradley, Mogg, White-colored, Groom & de Ceporro, 1999; Grey, Braver & Raichle, 2002; Isen, Manstead, Frijda & Fischer, 2005; Kensinger & Corkin, 2003). What we believe and perceive also impacts how we think (Ochsner, Bunge, Gross & Gabrieli, 2002; Raymond, Fenske & Westoby, 2005). Significant amounts of emphasis is placed on evaluating children’s mental abilities and achievements. Too much, little attention is given to nurturing non-cognitive qualities that could be even more crucial to a kid’s success. Inspiration, determination, drive, a positive self-image, belief in oneself, a feeling of security, superb social expertise, and/or intelligence’ may be far greater determinants of accomplishment than perceptive brilliance (Abedi & O’Neil, 2005; Ainsworth & Bells, 1970; Blair, 2002; Duckworth & Seligman, 2006; Dweck, Mangels, Very good, Dai & Sternberg, 2005; Goleman, 1995; Kreitler, Zigler, Kagan & Olsen, 1995). Negative feelings, such as sadness, anger, or fear, detrimentally affect onecognitive functioning and a person’s bodily well being (Carney, Freedland, Miller & Jaffe, 2002; Goleman, the year 2003; Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles & Glaser, 2002). Early emotional experiences, especially early stressful experiences (including prenatal stress), play crucial roles in affecting mature behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, and physical health (Avishai-Eliner, Brunson, Sandman & Baram, 2002; Day, Koehl, Deroche, Votre Moal & Maccari, 98; Evans, Gonnella, Marcynyszyn, Gracieux & Salpekar, 2005; Grunau, 2002; Gunnar & Cheatham, 2003; Heim, Plotsky & Nemeroff, 2005; McEwen, 2003; Mirescu, Peters & Gould, 2004; Pollak, 2005; Sanchez, Ladd & Plotsky, 2001).

Social associations affect honnperception, and emotional and physical health

We are social creatures and our internal and physical health can suffer whenever we lack fulfilling, caring human relationships and/or significant connections to a larger interpersonal group (Chandler, Lalonde, Sokol & Hallett, 2003; Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2003; Pressman, Cohen, Callier, Rabin, Barker & Treanor, 2005; Sullivan, 1953). Cultural status affects the stress knowledgeable and your responsiveness to it, along with access to resources which in turn influences one’spsychological and physical health (Chen, 2004; Chen, Hanson, Paterson, Griffin, Walker & Miller, in press; Heymann, Hertzman, Barer & Evans, 2005; Krieger & Davey, 2004; Lupien, King, Meaney & McEwen, 2001; Bambin & Wilkinson, 2005). The social target audience helps form the speaker’s words and thoughts (Mills, 1972). Subsequently, the testimonies we inform others about ourselves help shape who also we are (McAdams, 2006; McAdams, Josselson & Lieblich, 2006). The expectations of others for people, their behaviour, and their interpretations of incidents shape each of our thoughts, perceptions including self-perception, and activities (Asch, 65; Darley & Latane, late 1960s; Mead, 1934; Raz, Kirsch, Pollard & Nitkin-Kaner, 2006; Rosenthal & Jacobsen, late 1960s; Simons-Morton, 2004). We are as well biological beings and so there is certainly room for neuroscientific information not only in to our cognitive processes and perceptions, which has burgeoned in the last two decades, nevertheless also in to our thoughts (Davidson, 2003; Forbes & Dahl, june 2006; Panksepp, 1998) and each of our social habit (Adolphs, 2003; Cacioppo & Berntson, 2005; Robinson, Grozinger & Whitfield, 2005; Todorov, Harris & Fiske, 2006).

Henry’s inspiration: the bombsight computer

The main element of each Henry drawing machine was the bombsight computer. These mechanical analogue computers symbolized some of the most essential technological breakthroughs of Globe War Two. However , by the 1960s that they already represented old technology when compared to the more modern digital computers then available. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

The mechanised analogue bombsight computer was employed in Globe War Two bomber aircraft to determine the specific moment bombs were to be produced to hit their particular target. The bombardier entered information on surroundings and breeze speed, wind direction, angle of drift and bomb pounds into the computer which then calculated the blast release stage, using a intricate arrangement of gyros, engines, gears and a telescope. (Jacobs 1996)

It was in the early 1950s that Henry purchased his very first Sperry bombsight laptop, in mint condition, by an army surplus warehouse in Shude Hillside, Manchester. This purchase was inspired simply by Henry’s ongoing passion for a lot of things mechanised, which had been further fuelled by eight years serving as a technical clerk together with the Royal Electric and Physical Engineers during World War Two. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Holly so marvelled at the mechanised inner operation of this bombsight computer in motion, that he eventually decided to catch its peerless parabolas (as Henry termed its interior workings), in writing. He then customized the bombsight to create the first drawing machine of 1960. Another was built in 1963 and a 3rd in 1967. (O’Hanrahan 2005) These machines created complex, abstract, asymmetrical, curvilinear, repeating line images which were both left unmarked as completed drawings or perhaps embellished by the artist’s turn in response to the suggestive machine-generated effects. non-e of Henry’s machines at this point remains in operational buy. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Henry and fractal math concepts

Henry’s introduction in 2001 towards the aesthetic using fractal mathematics (Briggs year 1994) provided Holly with the required terms of reference pertaining to describing the chance-based operational aspects of his machines. Fractal mathematics could also help explain the cosmetic appreciation of his machine-generated effects or perhaps mechanical fractals (Henry 2002) as he found term all of them. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Fractal devices are produced by a dynamic, nonlinear system of interdependent and interacting elements; in Henry’s case, this really is represented by mechanisms and motions of the drawing equipment itself. (O’Hanrahan 2005) In a fractal program, as in every single Henry sketching machine, very small changes or adjustments to initial impact on can possess far-reaching results.

Fractal pictures appeal to the intuitive aesthetic appreciation of order and chaos mixed. Each Henry machine-produced drawing bears all the hallmarks of your fractal image since they embody regularity and repetition coupled with abrupt adjustments and discontinuities. (Briggs year 1994) In other words, they will exhibit self-similarity (similar information on different scales) and simultaneous order and chaos. These images as well resemble fractal strange attractors, since sets of curves within the machine-generated effects are likely to form clusters creating suggestive patterns. (Briggs 1994)

Fractal patterns, just like Henry’s machine-generated effects, have already been found to exist when ever plotting volcanic tremors, weather conditions systems, the ECG of heart beats and the electroencephalographic info of human brain activity. (Briggs 1994)

Henry found in fractals a means of both classifying his creative activity and describing the aesthetic gratitude of his visual effects. Among the many artists that have previously utilized what are at this point recognised as fractal pictures, are: Vincent van Gogh’s dense swirls of energy around objects; the recursive geometries of Maritus Escher; the drip-paint, tangled abstractions of Jackson Pollock. (Briggs year 1994 p. 166)

Story Adjustments Everything

Feb . The platinum standard formed the economical basis of the international overall economy from to Capitalism was carried across the globe by broader processes of globalization and by the beginning of the nineteenth 100 years a series of loosely connected marketplace systems had come together like a relatively built-in global program, in turn modern processes of economic and also other globalization.

Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using financial systems of range while fast population growth created endured demand for products. Globalization from this period was decisively molded by 18th-century imperialism.

Likewise in this period, areas of sub-Saharan Africa as well as the Pacific island destinations were colonised. The conquest of new parts of the globe, remarkably sub-Saharan The african continent, by Europeans yielded useful natural assets such as rubberdiamonds and fossil fuel and helped fuel operate and expense between the Western european imperial powers, their colonies and the United States: The inhabitant of London, uk could purchase by mobile phone, sipping his morning tea, the various goods of the complete earth, and fairly expect their particular early delivery upon his doorstep.

Militarism and imperialism of ethnic and cultural rivalries had been little more compared to the amusements of his daily newspaper.

2010-2011 (Sophomore)

Inside countless circumstances, availing scholarship grants is always the basically preference just for trainees to be able to reaching its economic must have as well as moving forward the coaching a greater distance.

The creating awards suitable for substantial college or university college students furthermore demonstrate to have the ability to possibly be useful. Scholastic Skill and Composing Gives will probably be supplied to enable you to young people due to In 7th place – Twelfth quality pertaining to composing. Right now there can be a large number of these kinds of scholarship grant deals to choose from released generally there. Info related to grants brought to you underneath should certainly always be useful.

High Establishment Scholarships

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Rewards for students

Group projects will help students develop a host of skills which might be increasingly crucial in the specialist world (Caruso & Woolley, 2008; Mannix & Neale, 2005). Great group experiences, moreover, have been completely shown to bring about student learning, retention and overall college success (Astin, 1997; Tinto, 1998; Countrywide Survey of Student Involvement, 2006).

Properly structured, group projects can reinforce skills that are highly relevant to both group and individual work, like the ability to:

  • Break complicated tasks in to parts and steps
  • Plan and manage time
  • Refine understanding through discussion and explanation
  • Give and receive opinions on efficiency
  • Concern assumptions
  • Develop more robust communication expertise.

Group tasks can also support students develop skills certain to collaborative efforts, allowing students to.

  • Deal with more complex challenges than they could independently.
  • Assign roles and responsibilities.
  • Share diverse perspectives.
  • Pool knowledge and skills.
  • Hold one another (and be held) accountable.
  • Receive support and confidence to take hazards.
  • Develop new ways to resolving variations.
  • Set up a shared id with other group members.
  • Find successful peers to emulate.
  • Develop their own voice and perspectives in relation to peers.

While the potential learning benefits of group work will be significant, basically assigning group work is no guarantee that these types of goals will be achieved. In fact , group jobs can and often carry out fail flop, miscarry, rebound, recoil, ricochet, spring back badly when not designed, supervised, and assessed in a way that promotes meaningful teamwork and deep cooperation.


The options for building and nourishing connections among the list of social, ethnical, neuroscientific, neurological, and cognitive sciences in the service of understanding kids and their advancement are immensely exciting. Crossing, and including across, disciplinary boundaries, in particular those disciplines in relation to biology/neuroscience, society/culture, cognition, feelings, perception, and motor function has considerably increased during the last decade and hopefully will increase exponentially down the road. All of these areas of being human being are multiply-interrelated and we need to make much more progress in understanding those interrelations.

Developmental science has been inspired more and more by simply an gratitude of the outstanding and multilayered interrelations between (our cognitive abilities), (emotions and motivation), and ears’ (perception), human heart, physical human body, social contact, and tradition. A full understanding requires attention to all of these multiply-interrelated facets.

The last decades with the 20th century saw the development and growth of initiatives to hyperlink cognitive mindset (including intellectual development) with neuroscience. Human brain and expinstitutes and multidisciplinary programs sprang up around the world. Hopefully, the modern world will see the continued expansion of such initiatives so that interpersonal, emotional, and cultural influences and effects are equal partners in the initiatives.

Musical legacy

Henry’s drawing devices of the sixties represented an amazing innovation in neuro-scientific art and technology for a variety of factors. Firstly, the bombsight computer presented not only the inspiration although also the primary tool to get producing highly original visual effects. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Secondly, his machines’ reliability on a mechanics of chance, as opposed to pre-determined computer programmes, ensured the unrepeatable and unique quality of his infinitely various machine-generated results or mechanical fractals. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Third, the natural, interactive potential of his drawing machines’ modus operandi pre-empted by simply some 20 years this particular aspect of later computer graphic manipulation software. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Finally, Henry was never creatively inspired by graphic potential of the modern digital pc. (O’Hanrahan 2005) He very much preferred the direct discussion afforded by the clearly noticeable interconnecting mechanical components of the earlier analogue computer and as a result of his drawing machines likewise. This was in stark compare to the undetectable and roundabout workings of the later digital computer: the mechanical computer, was a work of art in itself, involving a most beautiful layout of armor and weapon upgrades, belts, cameras differentials so on- this still retained in its working a visual attractiveness which has right now vanished in the present00 electronic version; I actually enjoyed seeing the machine work(Henry, 1972)

In view of these considerations, Henry’s drawing equipment may be thought to not only echo the early trial and error phase of Computer Artwork and pc graphics but to also provide a significant artistic and technological website link between two distinct age range of the twentieth century: the earlier Mechanical/Industrial Era and the afterwards Electronic/Digital Era. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

Experience impacts mind, head, and gene expression throughout development

Whom we are and what we believe is a product not only of our genes, nevertheless also of the social, social, and physical environments, of their interactions with each other, and of their very own interactions with our genes (Eisenberg, 1999a; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Petronis, 2004; Scerif & Karmiloff-Smith, 2005; Shweder, 1999). We now know that each of our brains are far more malleable than previously thought (Buonomano & Merzenich, 1998; Jingle & Greenough, 2004; McEwen, 1999), are malleable throughout development (Gould, Beylin, Tanapat, Reeves & Shors, 1999; Sapolsky, 2003), throughout expansion are affected by knowledge (including social and cultural experience; Eisenberg, 1999b; Greenough, Black & Wallace, 2002; Neville & Bruer, 2001; Schlaug, Norton, Overy & Winner, 2005), and that creation is a life-long process. Expperception, and emotion will be shaped by simply, and filtered through, their current ethnic context and cultural background (Choi, McDonough, Bowerman & Mandler, 1999; Doi, 1971; Heine, Lehman, Markus & Kitayama, 1999; Lutz, 1988; Mesquita, Markus, Manstead, Frijda & Fischer, 2004; Nisbett, Peng, Choi & Norenzayan, 2001; Norenzayan, Smith, Kim & Nisbett, 2002; Spencer-Rodgers, Peng, Wang & Hou, 2004). On the one hand, one’s one of a kind genetic makeup mediates how environmental factors affect your mind and body (Caspi & Moffit, 2006). Alternatively, genetic phrase itself can be malleable which is shaped by experience and the environment (Chakravarti & Little, 2003; Foerstner, von Mering, Hooper & Bork, june 2006; Gottesman & Hanson, 2005; Meaney, 2003).

The drawing machines

Each Henry attracting machine was based about an bombsight laptop in combination with other components which will Henry took place to have bought for his home-based workshop in Whalley Range, Manchester. (O’Hanrahan 2005) Each equipment took up to six weeks to construct and each pulling from among two hours to two times to total. The drawing machines relied upon a electric power source to operate a single one or two domestico motors which will powered the synchronisation of suspended pulling implement(s) operating upon either a stationary or perhaps moving attracting table. (O’Hanrahan 2005) With all the first sketching machine Henry employed biros as the mark-making apply; however with the machines that followed this individual preferred to use Indian printer ink in technical tube writing instruments, since these effects, unlike biro ink, do not risk fading upon prolonged experience of sunlight. (O’Hanrahan 2005)

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